Molgradex is an inhaled formulation of recombinant human GM-CSF that is being developed for the treatment of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, or PAP, a rare lung disease characterized by the build-up of lung surfactant in the alveoli, or air sacs, of the lungs. PAP is estimated to have a prevalence of approximately 2,500 patients in the United States. The disease process underlying PAP involves an autoimmune response against a naturally occurring protein, GM-CSF, suppressing the stimulating activity of GM-CSF on lung macrophages which function to clear excess surfactant from the alveoli.
Molgradex has been granted Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of PAP in the United States and the European Union. The Orphan Drug Designation makes Molgradex eligible for seven years of exclusivity from approval in the United States, and ten years of exclusivity in the European Union.
Molgradex is an inhaled formulation of recombinant human GM-CSF that is being developed for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung infection in both non-cystic fibrosis (CF) and CF-affected individuals. NTM is estimated to affect approximately 50,000 to 80,000 individuals in the U.S, the most common types involving Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and Mycobacterium abscessus. NTM lung infections are a considerable therapeutic challenge due to the unique ability of these bacteria to evade the normal killing mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, a type of immune cells responsible for killing bacteria in the lungs. NTM infections often become chronic and require long courses of multiple antibiotics, and despite the aggressive treatment regimens, treatment failure rates are high, and recurrence of infection common.
AeroVanc is an inhaled formulation of vancomycin, and is being developed for the treatment of persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
, or MRSA, lung infection in cystic fibrosis, or CF, patients.
CF is a genetic disease that involves sticky mucus buildup in the lungs, persistent lung infections and permanent and progressive respiratory disability. There are approximately 30,000 patients affected by CF in the United States, and MRSA infection has become increasingly common in these patients, with a prevalence of approximately 26 %. Persistent MRSA infection in CF patients is associated with increased use of intravenous, or IV, antibiotics, increased hospitalizations, a faster decline of lung function, as well as shortened life-expectancy. Due to the lung pathology associated with CF, persistent MRSA lung infection is difficult to eradicate or manage using oral or IV antibiotics, there is no standard of care to manage this condition and there are no approved inhaled antibiotics addressing MRSA lung infection.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study in CF patients with persistent MRSA infection, AeroVanc reduced MRSA density in sputum, and showed encouraging trends of improvement in lung function, and respiratory symptoms, as well as prolongation of the time to use of other antibiotics, with best responses in subjects under 21 years of age.
AeroVanc has been granted Orphan Drug Designation and Qualified Infectious Disease Product, or QIDP, status for the treatment of persistent MRSA lung infection in CF patients in the United States. The Orphan Drug Designation makes AeroVanc eligible for seven years of exclusivity from approval in the United States, and ten years of exclusivity in the European Union and the QIDP designation makes AeroVanc eligible for an additional five years of exclusivity in the United States.
Amikacin/fosfomycin is an inhaled combination antibiotic that is being developed for the treatment of non-CF bronchiectasis patients with chronic lung infection and frequent pulmonary exacerbations. Non-CF bronchiectasis is estimated to effect more than 100,000 people in the U.S., with similar prevalence rates in Europe and the rest of the world and is a chronic lung disease characterised by abnormal widening of the airways associated with chronic infection. Currently, the unmet medical need is high as there are no therapies specifically approved for the disease. The underlying pathology in bronchiectasis is a mix of infection, reduced immune response and inflammatory damage of the lungs.